Readings on Race, Racism, and Racial Violence edited by:
Nubian civilization lives in the shadow of Egypt ca. Christian Ethiopia and medieval NubiaIslamic kingdoms across the northern half of Africa, as well as east coast city-statestraditional kingdoms across the southern half of Africa ca.
The southern coast of West Africa is known as Guinea. In terms of biomes vegetation zonesthe Sub-Saharan region consists of a tropical rainforest core at the equatoraround which lie great stretches of savanna and grassland see Climates and Biomes.
Beyond these lie the vast Sahara Desert in the north and the relatively small Kalahari Desert in the southwest.
Note that despite its name, the region of "Sub-Saharan Africa" includes the southern half of the Sahara desert. Sub-Saharan Africa roughly constitutes black Africa, whereas the indigenous populations of North Africa are the lighter-skinned Berbers throughout the Maghreb and Egyptians in Egypt.
Following the expansion of the Caliphate, North Africa was heavily settled by Arabs, who mingled with these native peoples. The widely-shared physical trait of very dark skin is the exception rather than the rule, however, as Sub-Saharan Africa also features the world's most genetically diverse human population.
One major consequence of this isolation was lack of access to the innovations of Southwest Asia, where many of humanity's fundamental technologies including agriculture, writing, smelting, and the wheel were first achieved.
While these technologies diffused over vast distances both westward across North Africa and Europe and eastward across Asiatheir southward journey was frustrated by the mighty Sahara. G45 Consequently, these fundamental technologies were greatly delayed from permeating the Sub-Saharan region or had to be developed locally instead.
This dramatically impacted the course of Sub-Saharan history, especially in the case of agriculture see The Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Since agriculture was the key prerequisite to urbanization, most of Sub-Saharan Africa did not experience the rise of cities until the medieval or modern periods.
Nubia was the southern neighbour of ancient Egypt, whose territory also lay along the banks of the Nile see History of the Ancient Middle East. Nubian merchants acted as middlemen in Egyptian trade with Sub-Saharan Africa, and Nubian warriors often served as mercenaries in the Egyptian army.
For the early phase of Nubian civilization ca. Independence was finally achieved ca. The initial capital of this kingdom was Napata. B57,23 For a brief period, Kush actually conquered Egypt, such that its kings took on the additional role of pharaoh.
Kush continued to thrive until ca. During this time, Nubia became Christianized via Egypt ; following the expansion of the CaliphateNubia became an island of Christianity in an Islamic sea.
The region was finally conquered and converted by neighbouring Islamic powers ca. This state emerged ca. During the first phase of its history ca. During this period, Aksum embraced Christianity, which arrived in Ethiopia via Nubia.
Aksumite wealth was based largely on control of Red Sea trade. Aksum fell into economic decline, and its population shifted southward; it thus became an inland state, perched in the temperate Ethiopian highlands.
The spread of Islam across the northern half of Africa surrounded this Christian kingdom with Islamic rivals. Nonetheless, Ethiopia's resilience in the face of both external and civil conflict ensured its survival including its majority Christian culture up to the present day.
Setting these aside, the Sub-Saharan age of pre-colonial civilization spanned ca. While ancient Sub-Saharan Africa was almost bare of cities, the period ca. Pre-colonial Sub-Saharan civilization can be divided into three types: Christian, Islamic, and traditional.
Christian Sub-Saharan civilization was limited to Nubia and Ethiopia.The course will emphasize the history of British North America and the interactions between and among the many peoples of colonial America.
The course will then examine the coming, course, and consequence of the American Revolution (or what many at the time considered America's first civil war). Amy Zalman, Ph.D. has been writing about terrorism and political violence, and their role in global politics and culture, since the late s.
Updated May 29, Terrorism in America, like America itself, is a product of the many populations, issues and conflicts that co-exist within the nation.
History, in the broad sense, is the study of all human experience. It examines the people, institutions, ideas, and events from the past to the present. The study of history contributes to cultural literacy and develops critical thinking and other useful skills while helping students understand the present and plan for .
The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 67, years ago as the discovery of Callao Man suggested. Negrito groups first inhabited the isles. Groups of Austronesians later migrated to the islands..
Scholars generally believe that these social groups eventually developed into various settlements or polities. The final section will introduce an Indigenous critique of settler-colonialism that emerges both as a response to colonial practices of domination and dispossession of land, customs and traditional history and to post-colonial theories of universalism.
Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (America: a cultural history) [David Hackett Fischer] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This fascinating book is the first volume in a projected cultural history of the United States, from the earliest English settlements to our own time.
It is a history of American folkways as they have changed through time.