Russia Table of Contents In the post-Soviet era, the position of women in Russian society remains at least as problematic as it was in previous decades.
Inthe Russian economy was the sixth largest in the world in GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity PPP and tenth largest at market exchange rates. SinceForbes has named Moscow the "billionaire capital of the world" on several occasions.
Unfortunately, poor and corrupt governance means that Russia also experiences the second-largest volume of illicit money outflows. Russia is unique among major world economies, due to the way that it relies on energy revenues to drive economic growth.
Economic History Formerly a feudal state run by a czar, Russia was a largely agrarian society through much of its existence. It also relied on its enormous deposits of natural resources.
Trade often took place via river routes, with communities dotting the banks of these water bodies.
Much of the Russian plain was very sparsely inhabited, in large part due to the sheer vastness of this region and the cold climates. While well known to the West, Russia developed in isolation in many ways.
This changed with industrialization in the 18th and 19th century. The development of factories and industrial production brought an influx of foreign money into the country.
Export of raw materials still dominated much of the economy, but living conditions improved and larger populations began to congregate around urban centers.
Wars with France in the middle of the 19th century devastated portions of the Russian countryside and contributed to widespread famine.
Unfortunately, wealth began to concentrate in the hands of an elite minority, leading to civil unrest akin to that experienced in pre-revolutionary France. Thus, inthe political and economic philosophy of communism swept through the country, leading to the overthrow of the Czar Nicholas II and the execution of the royal family.
The economy during this period was based on a model of government ownership of industry and agricultural production. While every citizen of the Soviet Union was theoretically employed, the communist model provided little incentive for innovation and little means of inter-class mobility.
In the s, as the rest of the world began innovating with computer technology, the USSR remained largely a resource-based economy with less means for domestic development of new technologies. These problems were only exacerbated by an inefficient bureaucracy and widespread corruption at all levels of government.
From the mids, and until the just before its collapse, corruption and data fiddling became common practices and caused major issues with government administration. Bureaucrats, fearful of reprisals for reporting unsatisfactory economic performance, adjusted figures, present inaccurate figures to decision makers and deepening the problems with the economy.
Recognizing this problem, Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to address these issues with a number of market-oriented policy changes. These policies ultimately led to political, social, and economic disintegration that culminated in the breakup of the Soviet Union in Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia underwent an enormous change to its market.
A corrupt and somewhat haphazard privatization process attempted to shift major state-owned firms to private ownership. Unfortunately, the only available buyers were often politically connected oligarchs, which led to a concentration of wealth and the means of production in the hands of a select few.Nov 08, · Ever since Watergate, the mantra of all major corruption investigations has been to "follow the money." Well, Americans of all political stripes should be outraged by the fact that both Democrats.
Key events in Ukrainian anti-government protests that have been followed by political upheaval and international crisis. What roles will China, India, Russia, and USA play in the modern world of (considering political activities of the past and present)?
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Russia has staked a foothold in Libya’s future by cultivating allies on both sides of the country’s conflict, through business ties with the U.N.-backed government and public backing for its. Rachel Maddow reviews the development of the Trump Russia investigation over past seven months, one breaking news story after another.
(Watch the dates!). “The enemies of Holy Russia are everywhere,” says Ivan Ostrakovsky, the leader of a group of Russian Orthodox vigilantes who have taken to patrolling the streets of nighttime Moscow, dressed.