Holden caulfield mental disorder essay

In addition to these larger storylines, each episode also contains smaller arcs that usually begin and end within an episode. Most episodes follow President Bartlet and his staff through particular legislative or political issues.

Holden caulfield mental disorder essay

Notes Summary The intended purpose of this analysis, written by a former cult member, is to explain the nature of a cult, to warn others of the dangers of involvement with a cult group, and to support calls for society to be more proactive in protecting the rights of individuals targeted by cults.

Cults use so-called brainwashing or mind control techniques to indoctrinate their members. These are not magic techniques, they are ordinary techniques of marketing and persuasion, but applied more intensively within the peculiar context of a cult environment.

Essentially, a cult promotes its cultish belief system, and then believers control their own minds, as they attempt to train their minds and reform their personalities, in accordance with the tenets of their new belief system.

Brainwashing or mind control does not directly overcome free will. After brainwashing, free will itself remains intact, but its basis has changed. The basis of a person's free will is their belief system and worldview.

People make their choices and decisions, based on their beliefs, values, and attitudes. If a cult can influence and change a person's beliefs, then it can influence and change a person's will, and the choices they make. Effectively, a cult controls its followers Holden caulfield mental disorder essay, through the belief system which it promotes.

Cult belief systems differ from mainstream belief systems in a number of ways. This analysis tries to explain these differences, why they are significant, and to place them within a wider cultural and social context.

The Culture of Cults

Preliminary Definitions A cult can be defined in general as any group of people holding to a common belief system, but in practice the term cult is often used pejoratively, to refer specifically to 'a quasi-religious organization using devious psychological techniques to gain and control adherents' Collins English Dictionary [1]and this is the sense in which 'cult' is used in this analysis.

Various terms have been used to describe the devious psychological techniques allegedly used by cults, the most common being 'brainwashing' [2]'mind-control', 'thought reform' and 'mental manipulation'.

The term 'brainwashing' was originally coined by journalist Edward Hunter into describe techniques used by the Chinese Communists to subvert the loyalty of American prisoners captured in Korea.

Brainwashing in this original sense involved physical coercion: Cults do not generally use physical coercion, and so in recent years, researchers writing about cults have tended to use the term 'mind control', or sometimes 'thought reform', to denote a brainwashing or indoctrination process which does not involve physical coercion.

Journalists still tend to use the term 'brainwashing'. The term 'mind control' can be misleading. It perhaps suggests the idea that a person's mind can be robotically controlled by some outside agency, or that thoughts can somehow be hypnotically implanted in a person's mind.

Holden caulfield mental disorder essay

This is not at all what happens in a cult. In fact a cult controls its members primarily through the promotion and inculcation of a hierarchical, cult-type belief system within a person's own mind, rather than through any form of external control.

It is the belief system itself which is the catalyst in cult mind control. The actual mind control is done by the person themselves, as they train and discipline their mind in accordance with the tenets of their new belief system. Cults actively promote and market their belief systems.

Commercial companies use marketing and public relations techniques to promote an idealised image of their product or service to potential customers, and cults do much the same.

A belief system is an intangible thing, though it can be a powerful one. This intangibility means that cults are not subject to any kind of scientific appraisal, because the benefits or otherwise of involvement with a cult and its belief system are also intangible.

They are almost entirely a matter of personal opinion, and impossible to prove objectively. This also means that it is very difficult to define a cult satisfactorily, because any definition depends on personal opinion, rather than on objective criteria. The best one can do is to describe a cult-type belief system, and look at some of the subjective processes which may be going on in the mind of a cult member.

Because of the intangible nature of what they promote, cults do not really operate in the public domain. They operate in a private world, within an individual's personal religious framework or set of beliefs, and within an individual's own subjective world of self-esteem and self-confidence.

They operate within a person's mind. A person's mind or consciousness is something which is difficult to define or to measure, and so it tends to be largely outside the scope of scientific and academic enquiry. And from a legal point of view, a concept like 'freedom of mind' is equally hard to define, and so it is difficult to specifically protect such a freedom.

Personal free will is a cherished axiom of Western democracies, but free will itself is mysterious and hard to define. Indeed, some scientists and philosophers dispute whether free will as such really exists.

Everyone acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity.

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Schopenhauer's saying, that "a man can do as he will, but not will as he will" has been an inspiration to me since my youth up Therefore, when first a man has an appetite or will to something, to which immediately before he had no appetite nor will; the cause of his will is not the will itself, but something else not in his own disposing.

So that, whereas it is out of controversy that, of voluntary actions the will is the necessary cause, and by this which is said, the will is also necessarily caused by other things, whereof it disposes not, it follows that voluntary actions have all of them necessary causes, and therefore are necessitated.

For the will, like all other things, needs a cause by which it may be determined to [existence and] action in a certain manner.Now a School Library Journal Best Book of the Year!

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Cult Mind Control. Outline of a Cult Persuasion Process. Some cults promote a religious type of belief system. Others, such as so-called therapy cults, promote a secular type of belief system, based on quasi-scientific or quasi-psychological principles.

Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin The Catcher in the Rye - The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J.D. Salinger. It is narrated by Holden Caulfield, a cynical teenager who recently got expelled from his fourth school.

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