Nietzsche, Freud and the Thrust Toward Modernism 1 Where you see ideal things, I see what is -- human, alas, all-too-human. I know man better. In the lengthy history of the western intellectual tradition there have been thinkers who stand apart from the rest. Their power of mind, their insights and profound sensibility have made their lives and ideas a powerful record of man's attempt to explain the inexplicable.
So we made a thoroughfare for Freedom and her train, Sixty miles in latitude, three hundred to the main; Treason fled before us, for resistance was in vain, While we were marching through Georgia.
We bring the jubilee! The Flag that makes you free! One of the most conspicuous of morally charged terms of political condemnation, and certainly the most explosive in its dimension for political passion and even civil violence, is "racism. This case against racism seems so strong that its form gets borrowed to characterize parallel conceptions of moral and political evils like "sexism," "classism," and "homophobia.
If racism at root is just the belief that some races or groups of humans are genetically and intrinsically less able i. If the moral law is that we must allow the free exercise of the innocent, competent will of others in regard to their own interests, then it is perfectly possible that someone with racist beliefs might actually follow this rule and even have the best of intentions.
We might even say that at one time, if not even now, that kind of thing was rather common: They thought of Africans as the practical and moral equivalent of children -- which actually added to their outrage and their anguish since mistreating children the incompetent is more morally culpable than mistreating competent adults.
We cannot hold the Abolitionists morally liable for not holding the "right beliefs" about race, unless we believe that such right beliefs are so obvious that only a kind of intellectual negligence could be the cause of their believing them.
Looking at the received knowledge of the age, however, it would be surprising if they believed anything else. As Stephen Jay Gould saysabout the ridicule often heaped upon Bishop James Ussher for his determination from Biblical chronology that the world was created in BC, "The proper criterion must be worthiness by honorable standards of one's own time Models of inevitable progress, whether for the parorama of life or the history of ideas, are the enemy of sympathetic understanding, for they excoriate the past merely for being old and therefore primitive and benighted " [Stephen Jay Gould, "Fall in the House of Ussher," Eight Little Piggies, Reflections in Natural Hisory, W.
We don't have to be too "sympathetic" with ideas that we now associate with terror and genocide, [ 2 ] but self-righteousness today is not a virtue in relation to a period when many things seemed different.
Hume's views are a good indication of the opinion of the age among informed men. In a essay, "Of National Characters," he says: I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilized nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or speculation.
No ingenious manufactures amongst them, no arts, no sciences. On the other hand, the most rude and barbarous of the Whites, such as the ancient Germans, the present Tartars, have still something eminent about them, in their valour, form of government, or some other particular.
Such a uniform and constant difference could not happen, in so many countries and ages, if nature had not made an original distinction between these breeds of men. Not to mention our colonies, there are Negro slaves dispersed all over Europe, of whom none ever discovered any symptoms of ingenuity; though low people, without education, will start up amongst us, and distinguish themselves in every profession.
If we expect Hume to have known better, we must ask what information he can have had. We cannot just say that he should have assumed, as a moral axiom, that everyone is the same.
There is no reason why Hume, or anyone else, should ever make such assumptions. That is not a question of morals, but of facts. And if we think differently, it should be because we are better informed. In contrast to Hume, however, we may consider Thomas Jefferson.
Jefferson was very concerned with this issue, since he advocated the emancipation of black slaves. In the end Jefferson by no means disagreed with Hume, but he seems far less certain about it.
He carefully considers all the evidence known to him in his Notes on Virginia and, after arguing that there is no evidence of the moral inferiority of blacks rather different from more recent racismthen concludes: The opinion that they are inferior in the faculties of reason and imagination, must be hazarded with great diffidence.
To justify a general conclusion, requires many observations, even where the subject may be submitted to the anatomical knife, to optical glasses, or analysis by fire or by solvents. How much more then where it is a faculty, not a substance, we are examining; where it eludes the research of all the senses; where the conditions of its existence are various and variously combined; where the effects of those which are present or absent bid defiance to calculation; let me add too, as a circumstance of great tenderness, where our conclusion would degrade a whole race of men from the rank in the scale of beings which their Creator may perhaps have given them I advance it, therefore, as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.
It is not against experience to suppose that different species of the same genus, or varieties of the same species, may possess different qualification. It is now odd to note that Jefferson was under the impression that blacks were physically inferior to whites.
That was a rather common belief, even as late as the time of the Olympic triumphs of Jesse Owens, when Adolf Hitler was sure that the Olympics would demonstrate German physical superiority over everyone.Friedrich Nietzsche (—) Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic.
His writings on truth, morality, language, aesthetics, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, consciousness, and the meaning of existence have exerted an enormous influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history. Nietzsche spoke of "the death of God," and foresaw the . Friedrich Nietzsche () I have not done wrong, I have not done evil.
The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.
Raymond O. Faulkner [, , Chronicle Books, San Francisco, , Chapter , Plate 31], hieroglyphic. Books with essays on Martin Heidegger in English. Books of essays on Heidegger. After attheheels.com by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt, London, Rowman & Littlefield, This person article needs cleanup.
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This page has been listed as needing cleanup since Friedrich Nietzsche on Solitude. F riedrich Nietzsche () was one of the most forceful philosophical writers of modern times, influencing many philosophers as well as figures in the creative arts, literature, and politics.
He virtually originated concepts like nihilism, the will to . On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic (Genealogy of Morals) is an book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It consists of a preface and three interrelated essays that expand and follow through on concepts Nietzsche sketched out in Beyond Good and Evil ().