As long as deep within the heart The Jewish soul is warm And toward the edges of the east An eye to Zion looks Our hope is not yet lost, The hope of two thousand years To be a free people in our own land In the land of Zion and Jerusalem. To be a free people in our own land In the land of Zion and Jerusalem. But for a long time, this desire for our homeland was merely a vague hope without any concrete plans to achieve it.
Great Britain had occupied Palestine during the First World War, and in Julythe League of Nations issued its mandate for Palestine, which recognized the British government as the occupying power and effectively conferred to it the color of legal authority to temporarily administrate the territory.
It noted that the population of Palestine at the end of was estimated to be almost 1,, with 1, Arabs 65 percent andJews 33 percent.
The district with the highest percentage of Jewish ownership was Jaffa, where 39 percent of the land was owned by Jews, compared to 47 percent owned by Arabs.
Actually, it may well be said that the Jewish National Home and the sui generis Mandate for Palestine run counter to that principle. And yet, despite this recognition, UNSCOP had accepted this rejection of Arab rights as being within the bounds of a legitimate and reasonable framework for a solution.
It instead advocated freedom and independence for an Arab State in the whole of Palestine which would respect human rights, fundamental freedoms and equality of all persons before the law, and would protect the legitimate rights and interests of all minorities whilst guaranteeing freedom of worship and access to the Holy Places.
A sub-committee was established in turn that was tasked with examining the legal issues pertaining to the situation in Palestine, and it released the report of its findings on November The United Nations Organization has no power to create a new State.
Such a decision can only be taken by the free will of the people of the territories in question. That condition is not fulfilled in the case of the majority proposal, as it involves the establishment of a Jewish State in complete disregard of the wishes and interests of the Arabs of Palestine.
Recommends to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union set out below; Requests that a The Security Council take the necessary measure as provided for in the plan for its implementation; b The Security Council consider, if circumstances during the transitional period require such consideration, whether the situation in Palestine constitutes a threat to the peace.
If it decides that such a threat exists, and in order to maintain international peace and security, the Security Council should supplement the authorization of the General Assembly by taking measure, under Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter, to empower the United Nations Commission, as provided in this resolution, to exercise in Palestine the functions which are assigned to it by this resolution; c The Security Council determine as a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, in accordance with Article 39 of the Charter, any attempt to alter by force the settlement envisaged by this resolution; d The Trusteeship Council be informed of the responsibilities envisaged for it in this plan; Calls upon the inhabitants of Palestine to take such steps as may be necessary on their part to put this plan into effect; Appeals to all Governments and all peoples to refrain from taking action which might hamper or delay the carrying out of these recommendations….
It merely recommended that the partition plan be implemented and requested the Security Council to take up the matter from there.
It called upon the inhabitants of Palestine to accept the plan, but they were certainly under no obligation to do so. I do not believe that the resolution of the General Assembly can add to or delete from these functions.
The recommendations of the General Assembly are well known to be recommendations, and Member States are not required by force to accept them. Member States may or may not accept them, and the same applies to the Security Council.
There is nothing in the Charter to warrant such authority, consequently the recommendation of partition is ultra vires and therefore null and void. The said proposals were never put to vote by the president in the Assembly. The United Nations is an International body entrusted with the task of enforcing peace and justice in international affairs.
How would there be any confidence in such a body if it bluntly and unreasonably refuses to refer such a dispute to the International Court of Justice? Palestine Commission, tasked by the General Assembly to prepare for the transfer of authority from the Mandatory Power to the successor governments under the partition plan, issued its first report to the Security Council.
In effect, the Palestine Commission had determined that the partition plan should be implemented against the will of the majority population of Palestine by force. Click here help support the effort required to deliver it to you. In response to that suggestion, Colombia submitted a draft Security Council resolution noting that the U.
The Charter of the United Nations does not empower the Security Council to enforce a political settlement whether it is pursuant to a recommendation of the General Assembly or of the Security Council itself.
What this means is this: The Security Council, under the Charter, can take action to prevent aggression against Palestine from outside.
The Security Council, by these same powers, can take action to prevent a threat to international peace and security from inside Palestine. But this action must be directed solely to the maintenance of international peace.
If it is found that they are not, we should decline to accept them. Therefore, we must interpret the General Assembly resolution as meaning that the United Nations measures to implement this resolution are peaceful measures. Moreover, explained Austin, the U. It would be tragic indeed if the United Nations, by attempting a political settlement, should be the cause of war.
For these reasons, my delegation supports the general principles of the proposal of the United States delegation. The Authority of the U.
It is tasked to initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international cooperation and the development of international law, to receive reports from the Security Council and other organs of the U.The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states.
Creation of Israel, On May 14, , David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S.
President Harry S. Truman recognized the new nation on the same day. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures.
It is an international system of states, multinational corporations, and organizations that began with the Peace of Westphalia in Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused. Up until the . The Arab-Israeli War, established the state of Israel as an independent state, with the rest of the British Mandate of Palestine split into areas controlled by Egypt and Transjordan.
In , Israel signed separate cease-fire agreements with Egypt on February 24, Lebanon on March 23, Transjordan on April 3, and Syria on July On 25 July , Jordan and Israel signed the Washington Declaration, which formally ended the state of war that had existed between them since and on 26 October the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, witnessed by US President Bill Clinton.
Israel's foreign relations expanded steadily, as close ties were developed with the United States, British Commonwealth countries, most western European states, nearly all the countries of Latin America and Africa, and some in Asia.