Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender difference, as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women's rights and interests. Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year. According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves. The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the s and s, and the third extends from the s to the present.
Christine de Pizan presents her book to Queen Isabeau of Bavaria. People and activists who discuss or advance women's equality prior to the existence of the feminist movement are sometimes labeled as protofeminist.
Bentham spoke for complete equality between sexes including the rights to vote and to participate in government. He opposed the asymmetrical sexual moral standards between men and women. Marquis de Condorcet[ edit ] Nicolas de Condorcet was a mathematician, classical liberal politician, leading French Revolutionaryrepublican, and Voltairean anti-clericalist.
He was also a fierce defender of human rightsincluding the equality of women and the abolition of slaveryunusual for the s.
This was another plea for the French Revolutionary government to recognize the natural and political rights of women. Even though,the Declaration did not immediately accomplish its goals, it did set a precedent for a manner in which feminists could satirize their governments for their failures in equality, seen in documents such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and A Declaration of Sentiments.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is one of the first works that can unambiguously be called feminist, although by modern standards her comparison of women to the nobility, the elite of society coddled, fragile, and in danger of intellectual and moral sloth may at first seem dated as a feminist argument.
Wollstonecraft identified the education and upbringing of women as creating their limited expectations based on a self-image dictated by the typically male perspective. She took women's considerable power over men for granted, and determined that both would require education to ensure the necessary changes in social attitudes.
Given her humble origins and scant education, her personal achievements speak to her own determination. Wollstonecraft attracted the mockery of Samuel Johnsonwho described her and her ilk as "Amazons of the pen".
Based on his relationship with Hester Thrale he complained of women's encroachment onto a male territory of writing, and not their intelligence or education. For many commentators, Wollstonecraft represents the first codification of equality feminismor a refusal of the feminine role in society.
The feminine ideal[ edit ] 19th-century feminists reacted to cultural inequities including the pernicious, widespread acceptance of the Victorian image of women's "proper" role and "sphere. In this ideology, men were to occupy the public sphere the space of wage labor and politics and women the private sphere the space of home and children.
The novels of George MeredithGeorge Gissing and Thomas Hardy and the plays of Henrik Ibsen  outlined the contemporary plight of women.
Meredith's Diana of the Crossways is an account of Caroline Norton 's life. Collective concerns began to coalesce by the end of the century, paralleling the emergence of a stiffer social model and code of conduct that Marion Reid described as confining and repressive for women.
She discovered a lack of legal rights for women upon entering an abusive marriage. Harriet Martineau and others dismissed Wollstonecraft's  contributions as dangerous, and deplored Norton's  candidness, but seized on the abolitionist campaign that Martineau had witnessed in the United States  as one that should logically be applied to women.
Her Society in America  was pivotal: She advocated for suffrage and attracted the attention of Benjamin Disraelithe Conservative leader, as a dangerous radical on a par with Jeremy Bentham.
Female journalists like Martineau and Cobbe in Britain, and Margaret Fuller in America, were achieving journalistic employment, which placed them in a position to influence other women.
Cobbe would refer to " Woman's Rights " not just in the abstract, but as an identifiable cause.This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book.
The digit and digit formats both work. The Feminine Mystique Essay. Betty Friedan, after experiencing feelings of depression, self-loathing, and dissatisfaction as a mother and housewife, published The Feminine Mystique in Published in The book is a compilation of the diary writings of Anne Frank, a young woman who hid with her family for two years during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
Aug 02, · The Food Network can now be seen in nearly million American homes and on most nights commands more viewers than any of the cable news channels. The Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
It was published on February 19, by W. W. Norton. Study Guide for The Feminine Mystique. The Feminine Mystique study guide contains a biography of Betty Friedan, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.