In addition to the ongoing crisis in Darfur, forces under the command of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir have carried out attacks against civilians in the disputed Abyei territory, and South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. Throughout its offensives, the Sudanese government continues to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity against its own civilians. Well over a million civilians have been displaced or severely affected by violence throughout the last two years.
The conflict in Sudan has been well documented, but little attention has been paid to the crafts and arts of Sudan. Few people realize what a rich reservoir to the aromatic past Sudan is, and that Sudan once played a vital role in history of Perfumery and the trade of aromatics.
Even today Sudan has a thriving aromatic culture with a unique way of making perfumes. The culture of Sudan is a melting pot of fusion between different cultures.
The immigrant Arab culture and the neighboring cultures mainly Egyptian and West African cultures have strongly influenced Sudanese culture.
Their influences are especially evident in the North, West and East of the Sudan. Their influence was less felt South Sudan. Its history extends further back than B.
The fabled kingdoms of Kerma and Kush also referred to as Nubiaand many now also believe Punt South-East Sudan — Beja lands once rose and fell within the borders of Sudan. The civilization reached its peak between B.
C to B. Ref Due to its geographical position, for the15 centuries that the Kerma civilization flourished it was an extraordinarily prosperous empire ruled by a series of powerful kings.
During this time Kerma established itself very successfully as a middle-man between sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt that controlled the flow of trade in luxury goods to Egyptian Pharaohs, which included gold, ivory, precious woods, wild animals, slaves and of especial interest to us aromatics.
If indeed the location of almost mythical Punt was in the region of the Gash Delta, extending from the port of Suakin or Aqiq on the Red Sea coast, west to the Atbara River and south into northern Ethiopia most of the international trade in aromatics in antiquity occurred within the borders of Sudan.
Punt was also mentioned in the Bible, and ancient Romans called it Cape Aromatica. The Nubian kingdom at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it fell to the expanding kingdom of Axum. Meroe was the seat of the great caravan route from North Africa and westward across the Soudan Ethiopia.
From Meroe eastward extended the route by which the wares of southern Arabia and Africa were interchanged.
The great wealth of the Kushites arose from this net work of commerce which covered the world of the historical times. The trade routes can still be pointed out by a chain of ruins, extending from the shores of the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean.
Perfume bottle from Meroe From Meroe to Memphis the most common object carved or painted in the temples was the incense censor. From our present vantage point it is hard to imagine how important and how big the trade in aromatics was in the antiquity. Every nation of the historical times used frankincense and myrrh in religious ceremonies, cultural rituals and for medicinal purposes.
The spices may have landed initially at Madagascar from where they were transported to the East African trading ports. Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast. When exactly the trade between Southeast Asia and the southeastern coast of Africa began is still open to much debate, however the oldest archaeological remains of the domestic chicken Galllus gallus found in Tanzania may give us an indication; the remains dates back to 2, BCE.
Both the domestic chicken and cinnamon originated in Southeast Asia. The earliest similar evidence in Egypt is not earlier than the New Kingdom period about 1, years later.
Ref As such an important trade center for aromatics since ancient times, it is therefore not surprising to find that the present day culture of Sudan still includes the use of aromatics in all its important cultural and spiritual ceremonies.
Looking at the aromatic culture of Sudan gives us a very good indication of the role that aromatics once played in the spiritual and cultural history of humanity, both inside and outside the continent. Perfume production is one of the ancient arts. Although the use of perfume is well recorded in texts from the Egyptian Old Kingdom and the early second millennium in Mesopotamia and Palestine, the sources gives us little precise data about early perfume technology.
Thus while the history of the use of perfumes is widely known, the processes and equipment used by perfumers remain obscure. Ref So often in written recipes, techniques that are considered self-evident and common knowledge in the time period, is not recorded and thus becomes lost in time.
As the culture of Sudan is almost a microcosm of synthesis of the most influential cultures in the cultural evolution of humanity, I believe that the processes used by the Sudanese in their perfume making contain many of those lost secrets of the ancient art.
Sudan is a wonderful time capsule for the traditional use of incense and perfumes. For a long time I wondered how to capture the burning incense note, and the wonderful scent of fragrant wood smoke, naturally; the techniques used by the Sudanese gave me the answer.
More about that later in this article. Bakhur — Incense There are two popular methods of incensing in the Muslim Sudan; the bakhra and the takhriga. Bakhra is a sheet of white paper on which the fakir writes astrological formulas, magical seals, or numerical squares, with holy verses from the Quran.Genocide in Darfur.
With the international community focused on resolving the conflicts between the north and the south, a growing conflict in Darfur was virtually ignored. CSO's security actors forum on Community and individual safety and security was completed well in Bor on 23th of August Under the title the Role of security actors on inter-clan conflict management and mitigation implemented by Jonglei Civil Society Organizations network through support.
Conflict on Oil Between Sudan and South Sudan Essay Sample. After decades of civil war between North and South Sudan a nation wide referendum was held in January granting the independence of South Sudan by a majority vote of nearly 99% in favor or partitioning the once united war plagued nation (NYT ).
More than a million people have fled their homes in South Sudan since fighting broke out in December between government and rebel forces. President Salva Kiir says it was a coup attempt, blaming. Khartoum has resumed its bombardment of South Sudan despite the passing of a UN Security Council Resolution calling for a ceasefire.
With military action escalating over the past few days, the two. Since the shock triggered by the secession of South Sudan in , efforts have been made to re-establish macro-economic stability and restore growth in Sudan.
Nevertheless, significant imbalances, linked to the loss of three quarters of oil exports following the secession (and the corresponding income), continue to limit growth prospects, as do the difficult business climate, the lack of.