The parts of the examination may not be taken separately, and California does not accept the transfer of MBE scores from other jurisdictions. The examination is administered in February and July each year during the last week of the month that includes a Wednesday.
December 8, NASA: Life with arsenic December 7, Last week, in a much publicized news conference, NASA announced the discovery of a bacterium that can use arsenic instead of phosphorus.
The news media covered it with a flourish -- and produced much nonsense. The paper was posted at the Science magazine web site, so we can look at what was really shown. Whatever the hype that the news media added, it is an interesting -- but incomplete -- story.
The figure at left shows a key experiment; this is Figure 1B of the paper. The graph shows the growth of the bacteria under different conditions.
Number of cells on the y-axis log scale ; time on the x-axis. The three conditions are, from the top: Importantly, if there is no addition, the bacteria grow very little, if at all lower curve. Then, arsenic in the form of arsenate does indeed stimulate growth middle curve.
So does phosphate; in fact, it is better upper curve. The above experiment along with other measurements does seem to establish the basic point: But now let's look at some of the limitations of the story -- as we have it so far.
First, the bug prefers P to As: You can see this in the graph above. They explicitly do not claim that the bug requires or prefers As, merely that it can use it. Second and more importantly, the growth medium with no added P contains a trace level of P.
This probably comes from low levels of P contaminating other chemicals they use. It's not enough to support growth alone lower curve in the graphbut it does mean that when the bugs are growing on As, they also have a small amount of P available.
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In fact, analysis of the bacteria grown on As shows a weight ratio of about 7 As: On a mole basis, the ratio would be about half that.
Thus there still is considerable P in the bacteria.
They cannot claim a total replacement of As for P. The paper recognizes this limitation, but some of the news coverage does not. This may be interesting, too. So, where is the As in the cell? This becomes particularly important since the replacement is incomplete. And this is where the paper gets rather weak.
They hand-wave that it is everywhere, but there is little specific information. Where did this bacterium come from?
It was isolated from Mono Lake -- a highly alkaline lake in the Sierras of eastern Californiawith a high As level. Thus it is likely that the starting bug was quite resistant to As. All the reported work was done under lab conditions.
There has been an opportunity for both physiological and genetic adaptation.
Thus we do not know whether the bug uses As in nature.🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book.
The digit and digit formats both work. ESSAY QUESTIONS AND SELECTED ANSWERS JULY CALIFORNIA BAR EXAMINATION This publication contains the six essay questions from the July . A candle for Christmas December 20, Musings posts items of historical interest from time to time. This one is a book: a book about what happens when a candle burns, a book about chemistry -- premised on the observations of the candle.
In the past eight years, I have spent more time analyzing the NY bar exam than any single person in the world.
In that time, I have examined the scores from over 4, failing examinees and reviewed over 2, graded essays/MPTs. The Performance Tests (PTs) are like a scary haunted house. It’s frightening at first, but once you suck up the courage and go in, you come out the other side with candy and a .