Introduction The early nineteenth century was a period of immense change in the United States. Economic, political, demographic, and territorial transformations radically altered how Americans thought about themselves, their communities, and the rapidly expanding nation. It was a period of great optimism, with the possibilities of self-governance infusing everything from religion to politics.
Thomas Jefferson, Third U. President Jefferson is a central figure in early American history, highly praised for his political leadership, but also criticized for the role of slavery in his private life.
He championed equality, democracy and republicanism, attacking aristocratic and monarchistic tendencies. He was a leader in American independence, advocated religious freedom and tolerance, and opposed the centralizing tendencies of the urban financial elite.
He formed the second national political party and led it to dominance inthen worked for western expansion and exploration.
Critics decry the contradiction between his ownership of hundreds of slaves and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal", and argue that he fathered children with his slave mistress. For example, into pay for the rapidly expanding army and navy, the Federalists had enacted a new tax on houses, land and slaves, affecting every property owner in the country.
Some tax resisters were arrested—then pardoned by Adams. Republicans denounced this action as an example of Federalist tyranny. Jefferson enjoyed extraordinary favor because of his appeal to American idealism.
In his inaugural address, the first such speech in the new capital of Washington, DChe promised "a wise and frugal government" to preserve order among the inhabitants but would "leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry, and improvement".
Believing America to be a haven for the oppressed, he reduced the residency requirement for naturalization back to five years again. This was accomplished by reducing the number of executive department employees and Army and Navy officers and enlisted men, and by otherwise curtailing government and military spending.
The president and his associates were widely distrustful of the judicial branch, especially because Adams had made several "midnight" appointments prior to leaving office in March In Marbury vs Madisonthe Supreme Court under John Marshall established the precedent of being able to review and overturn legislation passed by Congress.
This upset Jefferson to the point where his administration began opening impeachment hearings against judges that were perceived as abusing their power. The attempted purge of the judicial branch reached its climax with the trial of Justice Samuel Chase.
When Chase was acquitted, Jefferson abandoned his campaign. To protect its shipping interests overseas, the U. This was followed later by the Second Barbary War With the upcoming expiration of the year ban on Congressional action on the subject, Jefferson, a lifelong enemy of the slave trade, called on Congress to criminalize the international slave trade, calling it "violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, and which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country have long been eager to proscribe.
Louisiana Purchase and War of The Louisiana Purchase in gave Western farmers use of the important Mississippi River waterway, removed the French presence from the western border of the United States, and, most important, provided U.
The United States, dependent on European revenues from the export of agricultural goods, tried to export food and raw materials to both warring Great Powers and to profit from transporting goods between their home markets and Caribbean colonies.
Both sides permitted this trade when it benefited them but opposed it when it did not. Following the destruction of the French navy at the Battle of TrafalgarBritain sought to impose a stranglehold over French overseas trade ties. Thus, in retaliation against U.
Believing that Britain could not rely on other sources of food than the United States, Congress and President Jefferson suspended all U. The Embargo Act, however, devastated American agricultural exports and weakened American ports while Britain found other sources of food.
He was quick to repeal the Embargo Act, refreshing American seaports. He tried various trade restrictions to try to force Britain and France to respect freedom of the seas, but they were unsuccessful.
The British had undisputed mastery over the sea after defeating the French and Spanish fleet at Trafalgar inand they took advantage of this to seize American ships at will and force their sailors into serving the Royal Navy.
Even worse, the size of the U. Navy was reduced due to ideological opposition to a large standing military and the Federal government became considerably weakened when the charter of the First National Bank expired and Congress declined to renew it. A clamor for military action thus erupted just as relations with Britain and France were at a low point and the U.
Powell In response to continued British interference with American shipping including the practice of impressment of American sailors into the British Navyand to British aid to American Indians in the Old Northwestthe Twelfth Congress —led by Southern and Western Jeffersonians—declared war on Britain in Westerners and Southerners were the most ardent supporters of the war, given their concerns about defending national honor and expanding western settlements, and having access to world markets for their agricultural exports.
New England was making a fine profit and its Federalists opposed the war, almost to the point of secession. The Federalist reputation collapsed in the triumphalism of and the party no longer played a national role. News of the victory at New Orleans over the best British combat troops came at the same time as news of the peace, giving Americans a psychological triumph and opening the Era of Good Feelings.
Under the direction of Chief Justice John Marshallthe Supreme Court issued a series of opinions reinforcing the role of the national government. The signing of the Adams-Onis Treaty helped to settle the western border of the country through popular and peaceable means.
The New England states that had opposed the War of felt an increasing decline in political power with the demise of the Federalist Party. This loss was tempered with the arrival of a new industrial movement and increased demands for northern banking.
The industrial revolution in the United States was advanced by the immigration of Samuel Slater from Great Britain and arrival of textile mills beginning in Lowell, Massachusetts.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. The Revolutions of , known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history..
The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical. Monroe was reelected without opposition in , and the old caucus system for selecting Republican candidates collapsed in the movement inspired other groups to call into question their views on religion and society.
Mexican–American War: – Growth from to The Content - It's not just about batteries. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background. We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind.
Religion and Reform who in turn offered support to their American counterparts.
American antislavery activists developed close relationships with abolitionists on the other side of the Atlantic, such as Thomas Clarkson, Daniel O’Connell, and Joseph Sturge. Missionary Society Membership Certificate, The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between and The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of attheheels.com defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (–) in alliance with France and others..
Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation.