For an essay giving background on the contest, click here. The Bad Writing Contest celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles published in the last few years. Ordinary journalism, fiction, departmental memos, etc.
Two cognitions or actions consistent with each other e. Two cognitions or actions unrelated to each other e. Two cognitions or actions inconsistent with each other e. The importance of cognitions: The greater the personal value of the elements, the greater the magnitude of the dissonance in the relation.
The proportion of dissonant-to-consonant elements. Reduction[ edit ] Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that people seek psychological consistency between their personal expectations of life and the existential reality of the world. To function by that expectation of existential consistency, people continually reduce their cognitive dissonance in order to align their cognitions perceptions of the world with their actions.
The creation and establishment of psychological consistency allows the person afflicted with cognitive dissonance to lessen his or her mental stress by actions that reduce the magnitude of the dissonance, realised either by changing with or by justifying against, or by being indifferent to the existential contradiction that is inducing the mental stress.
A Longitudinal Analysis from the International Tobacco Control ITC Four Country Survey indicated that smokers use justification beliefs to reduce their cognitive dissonance about smoking tobacco and the negative consequences of smoking tobacco.
Continuing smokers Smoking and no attempt to quit since the previous round of study. Successful quitters Quit during the study and did not use tobacco from the time of the previous round of study. Failed quitters Quit during the study, but relapsed to smoking at the time of the study.
To reduce cognitive dissonance, the participant smokers adjusted their beliefs to correspond with their actions: Functional beliefs "Smoking calms me down when I am stressed or upset. Common to each paradigm of cognitive-dissonance theory is the tenet: People invested in a given perspective shall—when confronted with disconfirming evidence—expend great effort to justify retaining the challenged perspective.
Belief disconfirmation[ edit ] The disconfirmation contradiction of a belief, ideal, or system of values causes cognitive dissonance that can be resolved by changing the belief under contradiction; yet, instead of effecting change, the resultant mental stress restores psychological consonance to the person, by misperception, rejection, or refutation of the contradiction; seeking moral support from people who share the contradicted beliefs; or acting to persuade other people that the contradiction is unreal.
At the determined place and time, the cult assembled; they believed that only they would survive planetary destruction; yet the spaceship did not arrive to Earth. The disconfirmed prophecy caused them acute cognitive-dissonance: Had they been victims of a hoax?
Had they vainly donated away their material possessions? To resolve the dissonance, between apocalyptic, end-of-the-world religious beliefs and earthly, material realitymost of the cult restored their psychological consonance by choosing to hold a less mentally-stressful idea to explain the missed landing.
That the aliens had given planet Earth a second chance at existence, which, in turn, empowered them to re-direct their religious cult to environmentalism; social advocacy to end human damage to planet Earth. Moreover, upon overcoming the disconfirmed belief by changing to global environmentalism, the cult increased in numbers, by successful proselytism.
Yet, when he died of a stroke ininstead of accepting that their Rebbe was not the Messiah, some of the congregants proved indifferent to that contradictory fact and continued claiming that Schneerson was the Messiahand that he would soon return from the dead.
Forced compliance theory In the Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliancethe investigators Festinger and Merrill Carlsmith asked students to spend an hour doing tedious tasks; e. The tasks were designed to induce a strong, negative, mental attitude in the subjects.
Once the subjects had done the tasks, the experimenters asked one group of subjects to speak with another subject an actor and persuade that impostor-subject that the tedious tasks were interesting and engaging.
After performing dissonant behavior lying a person might find external, consonant elements. Therefore, a snake oil salesman might find a psychological self-justification great profit for promoting medical falsehoods, but, otherwise, might need to change his beliefs about the falsehoods.We are pleased to announce winners of the third Bad Writing Contest, sponsored by the scholarly journal Philosophy and Literature and its internet discussion group, PHIL-LIT..
The Bad Writing Contest attempts to locate the ugliest, most stylistically awful passage found in a scholarly book or article published in the last few years.
The writing process is the series of actions required to produce a coherent written text. It is a key term in the teaching of writing.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE COGNITIVE PROCESS PROFILE (CPP) AND THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INVENTORY (MBTI) by GILLIAN VAN HEERDEN Submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of.
Greg Ashman – Cognitive Load Theory and Direct Instruction vs Inquiry Based Learning. In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or attheheels.com discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a belief of a person clashes with new evidence perceived by that person.
Cognitive psychology explores the branch of mental science that deals with motivation, problem-solving, decision-making, thinking, and attention.